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Renewing and Reinventing Freire:
A Source of Inspiration in Inner-City Youth Education

Footnotes and References

by Pedro Noguera
New York, New York


1. The clearest evidence that prisons in the United States largely fail at rehabilitating juvenile offenders can be seen in the 2/3 of incarcerated youth who return to prison within two years of their release. See National Council on Crime and Juvenile Delinquency 1996),

2. In California the term continuation school is applied to schools that specialize in serving students who have been dismissed from regular schools because of poor attendance, failing grades, discipline problems or a combination of these.

3. For a detailed description of the views of these conservative commentators and their recommendations on what should be done to “help” inn-city youth, see Losing the Race by John McWhorter (2001) and by Juan Williams. And by Orlando Patterson.

4. See for example recent reactions to the book by Puerto Rican politician Herman Badillo who criticized Hispanics for not valuing the importance of education. In an editorial, the Wall Street Journal described his book as “insightful and courageous”.

5. For a discussion of phenomenology as a philosophical, theoretical and methodological resource see

6. One of the organizations that I helped to create in 1987 was Black Men United for Change. My thinking was that by bringing concerned Black men together to address the plight of “at-risk” Black youth, we might have greater ability to respond to the problems. Today, similar organizations exist throughout the United States most operating under the name 100 Black Men.


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Published in In Motion Magazine October 16, 2007.

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