See our Photo of the Week (and archive of more) books we recommend

Opinion Advertize Permission
To be notified of new articles Survey Store About Us

“Joaquin’s dilemma”
by Pedro Antonio Noguera
Cambridge, Massachusetts


1. Endnote --

  • Tatum, B. (1992) "Talking About Race, Learning About Racism: The Application of Racial Identity Development Theory in the Classroom." Harvard Educational Review, Vol. 62, No. 1 Spring;
  • Cross, W., T. Parnham and J. Helms (1991) "Shades of Black: Diversity in African American Identity." Philadelphia: Temple University Press.;
  • Phinney, J. (1990) “Ethnic identity in adolescents and adults: review of research” in Psychological Bulletin 108, No. 3: 499-514..

2. Troyna, B. and B. Carrington (1990) Education, Racism and Reform. London: Routledge

3. Noguera, P. and M. Bliss (2001) “A Four Year Evaluation Study of Youth Together” Oakland, CA: Arts, Resources and Curriculum.

4. Erikson, E. (1968) Identity, Youth and Crisis. New York: W.W. Norton..

5. Troyna, B. and B. Carrington (1990) Education, Racism and Reform. London: Routledge

6. Noguera, P. (2001) The Role of Social Capital in the transformation of Urban Schools in Social Capital and Low Income Communities edited by S. Saegert, P. Thompson and M. Warren. New York: Sage.

7. Orfield, G. and S. Eaton. Dismantling Desegregation. New York: New Press, 1996.


  • Williams, Belinda Williams Closing the Achievement Gap;
  • Noguera, P. and A. Akom (2000) “Disparities Demystified” The Nation, June 5.


  • Ogbu, J. (1987) Opportunity Structure, Cultural Boundaries, and Literacy. In Language, Literacy and Culture: Issues of Society and Schooling, edited by J. Langer. Norwood, NJ: Ablex press and Fordham, S. (1996) Blacked Out: Dilemmas of Race, Identity, and
  • Success at Capital High. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Fordham, S. and J. Ogbu (1986)
  • “Black Students and School Success: Coping with the Burden of acting white” in Urban Review, No. 18.

10. Other researchers have argued that recent immigrant students of color are largely immune to the insidious association between race and achievement that traps students from domestic minority backgrounds. For so called “voluntary minorities,” whether they be Mexican, Asian, African or West Indian, schooling is more likely to be perceived as a pathway to social mobility, and for this reason they are also more likely to adopt behaviors that increase the likelihood of academic success. Having been raised in societies where people of their race or ethnic group are in the majority, they typically have not been subjected to the kinds of socialization processes that lead them to see themselves as members of subordinate or inferior groups. With none of America’s racial “baggage” to encumber them, many are able to excel if provided the opportunity to receive a quality education.

11. Steele, C. "A Threat in the air: How Stereotypes Shape Intellectual Identity and Performance". American Psychologist, June 1997.

12. Steele, p. 614.

13. Lee, Stacy (1996) Unraveling the Model Minority Stereotype (New York: Teachers College Press)

14. Mc Whorter, J. (2000) Losing the Race. New York: New Press. Meier, Deborah (1995) The Power of Their Ideas. (Boston: Beacon Press).

15. Steinberg, L. (1996) Beyond the Classroom. New York: Simon and Schuster.;


  • Phelan, P. A. Davidosn, H. Cao Ya (1998) Adolescent Worlds. Albany, NY: SUNY Press.;
  • McPartland, J. and S. Nettles (1991) "Using Community Adults as Advocates or Mentors for At-Risk Middle School Students: A Two-Year Evaluation of Project RAISE" in American Journal of Education, August.


  • Omi, M and H. Winant 1986. Racial Formation in the United States. New York: Routledge;
  • Horseman, Reginald (1981) Race and Manifest destiny. (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University press.

Published in In Motion Magazine December 1, 2002

Other articles by Dr. Noguera.

Email, Opinions & Discussion

If you have any thoughts on this or would like to contribute to an ongoing discussion in the
E-mail, Opinions & Discussion column click here to send e-mail to

In Unity/NPC Productions/Links

What is New? || Affirmative Action || Art Changes || Autonomy: Chiapas - California ||
Community Images || Education Rights || E-mail, Opinions and Discussion ||
En español || Essays from Ireland || Global Eyes || Healthcare ||
Human Rights/Civil Rights || Piri Thomas ||
Photo of the Week || QA: Interviews || Region || Rural America ||

Search || Donate || To be notified of new articles || Survey ||
In Motion Magazine's Store || In Motion Magazine Staff ||
In Unity Book of Photos ||
Links Around The World || OneWorld / US ||
NPC Productions

Copyright © 1995-2012 NPC Productions as a compilation. All Rights Reserved.