1. Endnote --
2. Troyna, B. and B. Carrington (1990) Education, Racism and Reform. London: Routledge
3. Noguera, P. and M. Bliss (2001) A Four Year Evaluation Study of Youth Together Oakland, CA: Arts, Resources and Curriculum.4. Erikson, E. (1968) Identity, Youth and Crisis. New York: W.W. Norton..
5. Troyna, B. and B. Carrington (1990) Education, Racism and Reform. London: Routledge
6. Noguera, P. (2001) The Role of Social Capital in the transformation of Urban Schools in Social Capital and Low Income Communities edited by S. Saegert, P. Thompson and M. Warren. New York: Sage.
7. Orfield, G. and S. Eaton. Dismantling Desegregation. New York: New Press, 1996.
10. Other researchers have argued that recent immigrant students of color are largely immune to the insidious association between race and achievement that traps students from domestic minority backgrounds. For so called voluntary minorities, whether they be Mexican, Asian, African or West Indian, schooling is more likely to be perceived as a pathway to social mobility, and for this reason they are also more likely to adopt behaviors that increase the likelihood of academic success. Having been raised in societies where people of their race or ethnic group are in the majority, they typically have not been subjected to the kinds of socialization processes that lead them to see themselves as members of subordinate or inferior groups. With none of Americas racial baggage to encumber them, many are able to excel if provided the opportunity to receive a quality education.
11. Steele, C. "A Threat in the air: How Stereotypes Shape Intellectual Identity and Performance". American Psychologist, June 1997.
12. Steele, p. 614.
13. Lee, Stacy (1996) Unraveling the Model Minority Stereotype (New York: Teachers College Press)
14. Mc Whorter, J. (2000) Losing the Race. New York: New Press. Meier, Deborah (1995) The Power of Their Ideas. (Boston: Beacon Press).
15. Steinberg, L. (1996) Beyond the Classroom. New York: Simon and Schuster.;
Published in In Motion Magazine December 1, 2002
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