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Footnotes and References
Responding to the Challenges
Confronting Black and Latino Males
The Role of Public Policy in Countering
the “Crisis” and Promoting Success
by Pedro Noguera
New York University, New York
- 1. Skolnick and Currie (1994) Crisis in American Institutions. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press. pp442-424; Earls F. 1994 p.6.
- 2. Poussaint and Alexander 2000 p. 22.
- 3. Kaplan, et. al. 1987 p. 141; Centers for Disease Control 1988 p. 17; Auerbach, et. Al. 2000 p. 2
- 4. Roper 1991 p. 12; Skolnick and Currie 1994 p. 416.
- 5. Auerbach et. al. 2000 p. 3
- 6. Wilson 1987 p.31; Massey and Denton 1993 p.p 17-41; Moss and Tilly 1993 p. 27; Feagin and Sikes 1994 pp.33 - 42.
- Alexander, M. (2010) The New Jim Crow: Mass Incarceration in an Era of Colorblindness. New York: New Press.
- Anderson, E. (1990) Street Wise. Race, Class and Change in an Urban Community. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
- Applied Research Center (2000). Turning to Each Other, Not on Each Other: How School Communities Prevent Racial Bias in School Discipline. San Francisco: Justice Matters.
- Auerbach, J. A., Krimgold, B. K., and Lefkowitz, B. (2000). Improving Health: It Doesn't take a Revolution. Health and Social Inequality. Washington, DC: Kellogg Foundation.
- Boykin, A. W. and P. Noguera (2011) Creating the Opportunity to Learn. Washington, D.C. Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.
- Bureau of Labor Statistics (2012). Employment Status by Race, Sex, and Age. http://www.bls.gov/news.release/empsit.t02.htm
- Carnoy, M. (1997) “The Great Work Dilemma: Education, Employment and Wages in the New Global Economy” in Economics and Education Review, Vol. 16, No. 2 pp. 247 254.
- Centers for Disease Control. (1988). “Distribution of AIDS Cases by Racial/Ethnic Group and Exposure Category: United States, June 1, 1981-July 4, 1988.” Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, 55(3), 1-10
- Council of State Governments (2011) “Breaking School Rules: A Statewide Study of How Student Discipline Relates to Student Success and Juvenile Justice Involvement”. Public Policy Research Institute of Texas A&M University.
- de Jesús Acosta, F. The history of Barrrios Unidos. Healing community violence. Cultura es cura. Houston: Arte Público Press.
- Earls, F. (1991). “Not Fear, nor Quarantine, But Science: Preparation for a Decade of Research to Advance Knowledge About Causes and Control of Violence in Youths.” Journal of Adolescent Health, 12, 619-629.
- Ed.Gov News 2012 http://www.ed.gov/news/press-releases/new-data-us-department-education-highlights-educational-inequities-around-teacher
- Fashola, T. and R. Slavin (1997) “Promising Programs for Eelementary and Middle Schools: Evidence of Effectiveness and Replicability” by Journal of Education for Students Placed at Risk, 2(3), 251-307.
- Feagin J. R., and Sikes, M. P. (1994). Living with Racism: The Black Middle-Class Experience. Boston: Beacon Press.
- Fergus, E. and Noguera, P. (2010). “Doing What it Takes to Prepare Black and Latino Males in College”. In Edley, C. and J. Ruiz (Editors). Changing Places: How Communities Will Improve the Health of Boys of Color. University of California Press.
- Gates Foundation (2006) A Silent Epidemic: Perspectives of High School Dropouts. Seattle, WA
- Girabaldi, A. (1992) "Educating and Motivating African American Males to Succeed" in the Journal of Negro Education, Vol. 61, No. 1, Winter 1992
- Gopnik, Adam 2012 “The Caging of America” New Yorker Magazine, January 30.\
- Greenberg, M. and D. Schneider (1994) "Young Black Males is the Answer, but What was the Question?" in Social Science Medicine, 39(2)
- Gregory, A., Skiba, R., & Noguera, P. (2010). Closing the discipline gap. Review of Educational Research.
- James, D. W., S. Jurich, and S. Estes. (2001). Raising Minority Academic Achievement. Washington, D.C.: American Youth Policy Forum.
- Jencks, C., & Phillips, M. (Eds.). (1998). The blackwhite test score gap. Washington, DC: Brookings Institution Press.
- Kaplan, H., Johnson, R., Bailey, C., and Simon, W. (1987). “The Sociological Study of AIDS: A Critical Review of the Literature and Suggested Research Agenda.” Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 28, 140-157.
- Kirp, D. (2011). Kids First: Five big ideas for transforming children’s lives and America’s future. New York, NY: Perseus Books.
- Leake, D. and B. Leake (1992) "Islands of Hope: Milwaukee's African American Immersion Schools" in the Journal of Negro Education, Winter 1992, Vol 61, No. 1
- Losen, D. and G. Orfield (2002) Racial Inequality in Special Education. Cambridge, MA: Harvard Education Press.
- Majors, R. and M. Billson (1992) Cool Pose. The Dilemmas of Black manhood in America. NY: Simon and Schuster.
- Massey, D., and Denton, N. (1993). American Apartheid. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
- McLaughlin, M. (2000) Community Counts: How Youth Organizations Matter for Youth Development. Washington, D.C.: Public Education Network.
- Mimms, K. R. Stock, C. Phinziy (2001) “Beyond Grade Retention” Journal of Education Policy.
- Moss, Phillip and Tilly, C. (1993) "Raised Hurdles for Black Men: Evidence from Interviews with Employers", Working Paper, Department of Policy and Planning, University of Massachusetts-Lowell.
- Noguera, P. (1995). "Reducing and Preventing Youth Violence: An Analysis of Causes and an Assessment of Successful Programs." In 1995 Wellness Lectures. Oakland, CA: University of California Office of the President.
- Noguera, P. (2008) The Trouble With Black Boys and Other Reflections on Race, Equity and the Future of Public Education. San Francisco: Wiley and Sons.
- Pollard. D.S. (1993) Gender, Achievement and African American Students perceptions of their school experience. Education Psychologist, 28(4).
- Poussaint, A and A. Alexander (2000) Lay My Burden Down: Unraveling Suicide and the Mental Health Crisis Among African Americans. Boston, MA: Beacon Press.
- Roper, W. (1991). "The Prevention of Minority Youth Violence Must Begin Despite Risks and Imperfect Understanding." Public Health Reports, 106(3).
- Rothstein Richard (2004) Class and schools: Using social, economic, and educational reform to close the black-white achievement gap. Washington, D.C.: Economic Policy Institute.
- Schott Foundation (2010) State Report on Public Education of Black Males. Cambridge, MA. www.blackboysreport.org.
- Shonkoff, R. (2000) From Neurons to Neighborhoods: The Science of Early Childhood Development. Washington D.C. National Research Council.
- Skolnick and Currie (1994) Crisis in American Institutions. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press. pp. 442-424
- Slavin, Karweit and Wasik (1989) Effective Programs for Students at Risk. Boston: Allyn and Bacon.
- Smithers, P. Robinson (2006) The Paradox of Single-Sex and Co-Educational Schooling. Univ. of Buckingham: Buckingham, UK.
- Steinberg, L. (1996) Beyond the Classroom. New York: Simon and Schuster.
- Taylor-Gibbs, Jewell (1988) The Black Male As An Endangered Species. New York: Auburn House.
- Valenzuela, A. (1999). Subtractive Schooling: U.S. Mexican Youth and the Politics of Caring. Albany: State University of New York.
- Walsh, Jennifer “Race and Life Expectancy in All 50 States” in LiveScience, March, 2012
- Watson, C. and G. Smitherman (1996) Educating African American Males: Detroit's Malcolm X Academy. Chicago, IL: Third World Press.
- Wilson, W. (1987). The Truly Disadvantaged. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Published in In Motion Magazine January 9, 2014.