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Footnotes and References

Responding to the Challenges
Confronting Black and Latino Males

The Role of Public Policy in Countering
the “Crisis” and Promoting Success

by Pedro Noguera
New York University, New York


1. Skolnick and Currie (1994) Crisis in American Institutions. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press. pp442-424; Earls F. 1994 p.6.

2. Poussaint and Alexander 2000 p. 22.

3. Kaplan, et. al. 1987 p. 141; Centers for Disease Control 1988 p. 17; Auerbach, et. Al. 2000 p. 2

4. Roper 1991 p. 12; Skolnick and Currie 1994 p. 416.

5. Auerbach et. al. 2000 p. 3

6. Wilson 1987 p.31; Massey and Denton 1993 p.p 17-41; Moss and Tilly 1993 p. 27; Feagin and Sikes 1994 pp.33 - 42.


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  • Watson, C. and G. Smitherman (1996) Educating African American Males: Detroit's Malcolm X Academy. Chicago, IL: Third World Press.

  • Wilson, W. (1987). The Truly Disadvantaged. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Published in In Motion Magazine January 9, 2014.

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