Alexander, M. (2010). The New Jim Crow: Mass incarceration in the age of colorblindness. New York, NY: New Press.
APA Task Force. (2008) Task force on resiliency and strength in black children and adolescents. Adopted by APA council of representatives. Washington DC: American Psychological Association.
Associated Press (2007). When a candy bar, wallet or hairbrush leads to police gunfire. The Cornell Daily Sun. Retrieved from http://cornellsun.com/node/26276
Bauer, L., Guerino, P., Nolle, K. L., & Tang, S. (2008). Student victimization in U. S. Schools: results from the 2005 school crime supplement to the national crime victimization survey (NCES 2009-306). National Center for Education Statistics. Institute of Education Sciences, U. S. Department of Education, Washington DC.
Bronfenbrenner, U. (1975). The Ecology of Human Development in Retrospect and Prospect. Invited address at the final plenary session of the Conference on Ecological
Factors in Human Development held by the International Society for the Study of Behavioral Development, University of Surrey, Guildford, England, July 1317.
Bhabha, H. K. (1983). The other question…. Screen, 24(6), 18-36.
Bowen, N. K., Bowen, G. L., & Ware, W. (2002). Neighborhood social disorganization, families, and the educational behavior of adolescents. Journal of Adolescent Research, 17, 468-489.
Brown, A. (2011). “Same old stories”: The black male in social science and educational literature, 1930s to the present. Teachers College Record, 113(9), 2047-2079
Carter, P. L. (2005). Keepin' it real : Why school success has no color . New York, NY: Oxford University Press.
Clear, T. (2007). Imprisoning communities: How mass incarceration makes disadvantaged neighborhoods worse, New York, NY: Oxford University Press.
Cross Jr., W. E. (1991). Shades of black: Diversity in African-American identity. Philadelphia, PA: Temple University Press.
Dance, Lori (2002). Tough Fronts: The Impact of Street Culture on Schooling. London: Routledge.
Ellison, R. (1995). Invisible man. (2nd ed.). New York, NY: Random House.
Fergus, E. & Noguera, P. (2011). Doing what it takes to prepare black and Latino males in college. In Edley, C. and J. Ruiz (Eds). Changing places: How communities will improve the health of boys of color. Berkeley: University of California Press.
Ferguson, A. (2001). Bad boys: Public schools in the making of black masculinity. Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Press.
Fine, M. (1991) Framing dropouts : Notes on the politics of an urban public high school. Albany, NY: State University of New York Press.
Fogel, R. W. (1989). Without consent or contract: The rise and fall of American slavery. New York, NY: Norton.
Ford Foundation. (2007). Why we can't wait: A case for philanthropic action: opportunities for improving the life outcomes for African American males. New York, NY: Marcus Littles.
Gibbs, J.T. (1988). Young, black, and male in America: An endangered species. Dover, MA: Auburn House Publishing Co.
Gopnik, Adam (2012). The Caging of America. New Yorker Magazine. Retrieved from http://www.newyorker.com/arts/critics/atlarge/2012/01/30/120130crat_atlarge_gopnik
Graham, S., & Lowery, B.S. (2004). Priming unconscious racial stereotypes about adolescent offenders. Law and Human Behavior 28, 483-504.
Greenberg, M. and D. Schneider (1994). Violence in American Cities: Young black males is the answer, but what was the question? Social Science Medicine, 39(2)
Gregory, J. F. (1997). Three strikes and they’re out: African American boys and American schools’ responses to misbehavior. International Journal of Adolescence and Youth, 7 (1), 25-34.
Gregory, A., Skiba, R. J., & Noguera, P. A. (2010). The achievement gap and the
discipline gap. Educational Researcher, 39(1), 59-68.
Halbfinger, D.M., (2012). With Arena, Rapper Rewrites Celebrity Investor’s Playbook. The New York Times. Retrieved from http://www.nytimes.com/2012/08/16/nyregion/with-the-nets-jay-z-rewrites-the-celebrity-investors-playbook.html?pagewanted=all
Harper, S. R. (2012). Black male student success in higher education: A report from the National Black Male College Achievement Study. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania , Center for the Study of Race and Equity in Education.
Hill Collins, P., (1989). Toward a new vision: race, class and gender as categories of analysis and connection. The Research Clearinghouse and Curriculum Integration Project. Memphis, TN: The University of Memphis
Karp, S. (2009). Black Male Conundrum. Retrieved from www.catalyst-chicago.org
Kimmel, Michael (2009). Men, masculinity and violence. Lexington, KY: University of Kentucky Press.
Krezmien, M. P., Leone, P. E., & Achilles, G. M. (2006). Suspension, race, and disability: Analysis of statewide practices and reporting. Journal of Emotional and Behavioral Disorders, 14, 217-226.
Legum, J. (2012). What everyone should know about Trayvon Martin (1995-2012). Think Progress. Retrieved from http://thinkprogress.org/justice/2012/03/18/446768/what-everyone-should-know-about-about-trayvon-martin-1995-2012/?mobile=nc
Levinson, B., Foley, D., & Holland, D. (1996). The cultural production of the educated person. Albany, NY: SUNY Press.
Losen, D. & G. Orfield (2002) Racial inequality in special education. Cambridge, MA: Harvard Education Press.
Losen, D., Martinez, T., Gillespie, J. (2012) Suspended Education in California.
Retrieved from http://civilrightsproject.ucla.edu/resources/projects/center-for-civil-rights-remedies/school-to-prison-folder/summary-reports/suspended-education-in-california/SuspendedEd-final3.pdf
Mackey, R. (2012). ‘If I had a son, he’d look like Trayvon,’ Obama says. The New York Times. Retrieved from http://thelede.blogs.nytimes.com/2012/03/23/if-i-had-a-son-hed-look-like-trayvon-obama-says/
Maeroff, G. (1988). Withered hopes, stillborn dreams: The dismal panorama of urban schools. Phi Delta Kappan, 69, 632-638.
Majors, R. and M. Billson (1992). Cool Pose. The dilemmas of black manhood in America. New York, NY: Simon and Schuster.
Marger, M. (2008), Race and ethnic relations : American and global perspectives.
Belmont, CA: Wadsworth Pub. Co.
McCready, L. (2009). Understanding the marginalization of gay and gender non-conforming black male students. Theory into Practice 43 (2) 136-143.
Meade, B., Gaytan, F., Fergus, E., & Noguera, P. (2009). A close look at the dropout crisis examining black and Latino males in New York City. Retrieved from: http://steinhardt.nyu.edu/scmsAdmin/uploads/004/453/Dropout_Crisis.pdf
Mincy, R., Martin, M., Noguera, P., Zilanawala, A., & Fergus, E., (2010). Understanding the education trajectories of young black men in New York City: Elementary and Middle School Years. Retrieved from: http://steinhardt.nyu.edu/scmsAdmin/media/users/eaf7/BMDC_Black_Male_Education_Trajectory_Report-FULL.pdf
Moss, Phillip &Tilly, C. (1993). Raised hurdles for black men: Evidence from interviews with employers, (Working Paper, Department of Policy and Planning) University of Massachusetts-Lowell.
National Fatherhood Initiative (2012) Facts and Figures. Washington, D.C. retrieved from: http://www.fatherhood.org/media/consequences-of-father-absence-statistics
Noguera, P. (2003). City schools and the American dream: Reclaiming the promise of public education. New York, NY: Teachers College Press.
Noguera, P. (2008). The trouble with black boys and other reflections on race, equity and the future of public education. San Francisco, CA: Wiley and Sons.
Noguera, P. & Wing, J.Y., (Eds.). (2008) Unfinished business : Closing the racial achievement gap in our schools. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.
Nolan, Kathleen. (2011). Police in the hallways: Discipline in an urban high school. Minneapolis, MN: University of Minnesota Press. Office of Minority Health. (2010). Men’s Health 101 Retrieved from:
Payne, C. (1984) Getting what we ask for. Westport, CT: Greenwood.
Phinney, J. S. (1989). Stages of ethnic identity development in minority group adolescents. The Journal of Early Adolescence, 9(1-2), 34-49.
Pollard. D.S. (1993). Gender, achievement and African American students perceptionsof their school experience. Education Psychologist, 28(4).
Pollack, Mica (2004). Colormute: Race talk dilemmas in an American school. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Poussaint, A and A. Alexander (2000) Lay my Burden down: Unraveling suicide and the mental health crisis among African Americans. Boston, MA: Beacon Press.
Schott Foundation. (2010). Yes we can: The Schott 50 State Report on Public Education and Black Males. Cambridge, MA.
Steele, C. M., & Aronson, J. (1995). Stereotype threat and the intellectual test performance of African Americans. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 69(5), 797-811.
Steele, C. (2010). Whistling Vivaldi : And other clues to how stereotypes affect us. New York, NY : W.W. Norton & Company.
Stoll, M., Holzer, H., Ihlanfeldt, K.R, (2000). Within cities and suburbs: Racial residential concentration and the spatial distribution of employment opportunities across sub-metropolitan areas. Journal of Policy Analysis and Management 19 (2) 207-231.
Taylor-Gibbs, J. (1988). The black male as an endangered species. New York: Auburn House.
Thomas, D.E., & Stevenson, H. (2009) Gender risks and education: The particular classroom challenges for urban low-income African American boys. Review of Research in ` Education, 33 (1) 160- 180.
Thomson, T., Ungerleider, C., (2004) Single Sex Schooling: Final Report. Canadian Centre for Knowledge Mobilisation . Retrieved from: http://www.cckm.ca/pdf/SSS%20Final%20Report.pdf
Tough, P. (2012). How children succeed: Grit, curiosity, and the hidden power of character. New York, NY: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt.
Treyvon Martin Case (2012). The New York Times. Retrieved from:
Tyre, P. (2008). The Trouble With Boys. New York: Crown Publishers. Violence Policy Center (2007). Black male homicide victimization in the United States. Washington, D.C. Retrieved from: www.vpc.org/studies/blackhomicide10.pdf
Welsh, Jennifer (2012). Race and life expectancy in all 50 states. LiveScience, Retrieved from: http://www.livescience.com/18835-race-lifespan-states.html
Waters, M.C. (1990). Ethnic Options. Choosing identities in America. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.
Watson, C. &G. Smitherman (1996.) Educating African American Males: Detroit's Malcolm X Academy. Chicago, IL: Third World Press.
Willis, P. (1981). Learning to labor: How working class kids get working class jobs. New York: NY: Columbia University Press.
Wilson, W. J. (1987). The Truly Disadvantaged. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago
Published in In Motion Magazine June 18, 2014.