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What's Behind the Push Toward the Privatization
of Public Education in the United States

References and Footnotes

by Pedro A. Noguera
Cambridge, Massachussetts


Bowles, S. and Gintis, H. Schooling in Capitalist America (1976) New York: -- Basic Books

Carnoy, M. and Levin, M. Schooling and Work in the Democratic States -- (1985) Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press

Chubb, J. and Moe, T. Politics, Markets and America's Schools (1990) -- Washington, D.C.: The Brookings Institute

Curti, M. The Social Ideas of American Educators (1968) Totowa, New Jersey: -- Littlefield Adams and Company.

Fiske, E. (1992) Smart Schools, Smart Kids, Why Do Some Schools Work? -- New York, N.Y.: Touch Stone Book

Gormley, W. (1991) Privatization and Its Alternatives. Madison, WI: -- University of Wisconsin Press

Gross, B. and Gross, R. The Great School Debate (1985) . New York, N.Y.: -- Simon and Schuster, Inc.

Jencks, C. Inequality (1972) New York: Harper and Row

Katznelson, I. and Weir, Education for All (1989) Berkeley, CA: University of -- California Press

Must, A. Why We Still Need Public Schools. (1992) Buffalo, N.Y.: -- Prometheus Books.

Orfield, G. and S. Eaton. Dismantling Desegregation. New York: New Press, -- 1996.

Policy Analysis for California Education (1992) Conditions of Education in -- California 1991. Berkeley, CA: PACE.

Willie, C. and Alves, M. "An unpublished Report on the Implementation of -- the Revised Boston "Controlled Choice" Plan" Submitted to the School -- Committee of the Boston Public Schools, March 3, 1993


1. The following is a list of the most prominent of these national reports on education in the United States: Academic Preparation for College: What Students Need to Know and Be Able to Do, Educational Equality Project, The College Board, May 1983; Action for Excellence: A Comprehensive Plan to Improve Our Nation's Schools, Taskforce on Education for Economic Growth, Education Commission of the States, May 1983; America's Competitive Challenge: The Need for A National Response, A Report to the President of the United States from the Business-Higher Education Forum, April 1983; A National at Risk: The Imperative for Educational Reform, The National Commission on Excellence in Education, April 1983. There are several others as well which were produced during the same time period. For a critical discussion of these reports see The Great School Debate, edited by Beatrice and Ronald Gross (New York: Simon and Schuster, 1985)

2. Cite TIMS study

3. Despite significant opposition to immigration in recent years legislation has been proposed that would allow for increase in immigration quotas for high tech workers See "Bill Urges Increase in Immigration Quotas for High Tech workers" by S. Walker in the San Francisco Chronicle, May 16, 1999.

4. Gross and Gross, 1985 p. 5

5. The most apparent example of the diminished influenced of teacher unions is in California. Despite having been among the most important supporters of California Governor Gray Davis during his 1998 campaign, union leaders have complained loudly about his unwillingness to support their positions on school funding and other policy issues since the election. See "Teacher Unions Unhappy With Davis" by F. Stein and the Los Angeles Times, March 3, 2000.

6. For a discussion of the coalition of forces behind school vouchers and privatization see "Double-crossed in Milwaukee" by Tammy Johnson in ColorLines September 8, 2000, p.1,2.

7. Ibid, p. 3 other cases

8. A recent survey conducted by the Joint Center for Political and Economic Studies found that 88% of African Americans were in favor of education choice plans that include public and private schools, with the highest support (95%) coming from families that earn less than $15,000 per year. A poll conducted by Gallup showed similar results with 77% of the African American respondents expressing support. See "Support for Vouchers Growing Among Minorities" by F. Richmond in the Oakland Tribune, November 2, 1992.

9. In 1991 California's student population was 45.6% white, 34.4% Hispanic, 10.6% Asian, 8.6% African American, 0.8% Native American. Of these students approximately one third speak a language other than English. See Ed Source, Nov. 1991.

10. Proposition 187 was designed to deny undocumented immigrants access to public services including education. However, will the courts have upheld most aspects of the law it ruled that denying access to public education was unconstitutional.

11. Using private universities and preparatory schools as a model, Alexander Astin makes a similar argument with regard to the effect choice and voucher programs are likely to have upon access by poor parents to elite schools. See Astin, A. "Educational "Choice" Its Appeal May Be Illusory" in Sociology of Education, October 1992 (Washington D.C.: American Sociological Association)

12. For a critique of school choice proposals and a discussion of issues related to student access see Astin, Alexander "Educational "Choice": Its Appeal May Be Illusory" in Sociology of Education, October 1992 Vol. 65, No. 4

For a discussion of some of the compelling arguments in favor of see Chubb, J. and Moe, T. Politics Markets and America's Schools (Washington, D.C.: The Brookings Institution, 1990) p. 215 - 225.

Published in In Motion Magazine November 8, 2000.