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It Takes More Than Pressure
to Improve Failing High Schools


by Pedro A. Noguera


Cuban, L. and D. Tyack (1995) Tinkering Toward Utopia (Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.

Clinchy, E. (ed.) (2000) Creating New Schools: How Small Schools are Changing American Education. New York: Teachers College Press.

Hillard, S. (2005) “In New York’s Inaugural Smaller Schools, ‘Good year and a Tough Year’”. New York Times, August 8.

Newman, F. 1992 Student Engagement and Achievement in American Secondary Schools. New York: Teachers College Press.

T. Perry, A. Hilliard, and C. Steele (2002) Young Gifted and Black.

Rosaldo, R. and W. Flores (1997) “Identity, Conflict, and Evolving Latino Communities: Cultural Citizenship in San Jose, California” in Latino Cultural Citizenship, edited by William Floores and Rina Benmayor. Boston: Beacon Press.

Sarason, (1971) The Culture of the School and the Problem of Change. Boston, MA: Allyn and Bacon.

Steele, C. 1997 “A Threat in the air: How Stereotypes Shape Intellectual Identity and Performance”. American Psychologist, June

Steinberg L. 1996 Beyond the Classroom. New York: Simon and Schuster.

Published in In Motion Magazine October 1, 2005.

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