and the Implications for Public Policy
-- Footnotes and References --
by Pedro A. Noguera
1. For critiques of this version of American History see the People's History of the United States by Howard Zinn ( New York: Harper Collins) 1980 and Lies My Teacher Told Me by James Lowen (New York: New Press) 1995
2. For a recent article on US arms sales see "Global Arms Sales Rise Again, and the U.S. leads the pack" by Thom Shanker in the New York Times August 20, 2001, p. 11
3. or an analysis of manifest destiny and its role in rationalizing US aggression against Mexico, the Caribbean and Latin America see White Supremacy by George Fredrickson (Oxford, U.K.: Oxford University Press, 1981) and The Limits of Friendship by Jorge Castaneda (N.Y.: Vintage Books, 1989). For a critical discussion of the cold war and more contemporary U.S. foreign policy see Deterring Democracy by Noam Chomsky (New York: verso press, 1991)
4. For a discussion of the more traditional perspectives on violence see Causes of Delinquency by Travis Hischi (Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 1969) and Thinking About Crime by James Q. Wilson (New York: Vintage Books, 1975)
6. A reminder that many of those who have been incarcerated are there for non-violent crimes was recently provided by a study on California's Three Strikes Laws. According to a report issued by the Sentencing Project, over 50% of those who have received life sentences under the three strikes provisions have been convicted of property or drug related offenses. See "Study Finds 3-Strikes Measure In California Much overrated" by Tamar Lewin in the New York Times, p. 16 August 23, 2001.
7. The ways in which schools have historically functioned as instruments of social control are described by David Tyack in The One Best System (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University press, 1974;72-77) and by Lawrence Cremin in The Transformation of the School (New York: Vintage Books, 1971:243-246)
8. For a detailed analysis of Youth Together and its accomplishments see An Evaluation and Analysis of Youth Together by Pedro A. Noguera and Miranda Bliss (Oakland, CA: ARC, 2001)
9. For background on the factors leading up to the assassination of Marcus Foster see Experiment and Change in Berkeley edited by Harriet Nathan and Stanley Scott (Berkeley: Institute of Governmental Studies, 1978)
10. In Education for Critical Consciousness (New York: Continuum Press, 1969), Paulo Freire suggests that literacy discussion circles can provide an opportunity for adult learners to achieve a degree of detachment from their social situation and thereby have the ability to see how their position of subordination is maintained.
1. Alavi, Hamza "State and Class Under Peripheral capitalism" Sociology of Developing Societies by Hamza Alavi and Teodor Shanin (New York: Monthly Review Press, 1982)
2. Castaneda, Jorge The Limits of Friendship (N.Y.: Vintage Books, 1989).
3. Chomsky , Noam Deterring Democracy (New York: Verso Press, 1991)
4. Cremin, Lawrence The Transformation of the School (New York: Vintage Books, 1971)
5. Cuban, Larry and David Tyack Tinkering Toward Utopia. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1995.
6. Currie, Elliott Confronting Crime. (New York: Pantheon Books) 1985
7. Dinziger, Steven editor The Real War on Crime (New York: Harperperennial) 1996
8. Earls, Felton "Not Fear, nor Quarantine, but Science: preparation for a Decade of Research to Advance Knowledge about Causes and Control of Violence in Youths" in Journal of Adolescent Medicine, 1991; 12:619-629.
9. Erickson, Erik Identity: Youth and Crisis (New York: W.W. Norton, 1968)
10. Fine, Michelle Chartering urban School Reform. New York: teachers College press, 1994
11. Fredrickson, George White Supremacy (Oxford, U.K.: Oxford University Press, 1981)
12. Freire, Paulo Education for Critical Consciousness (New York: Continuum Press, 1969).
13. Fullan, Michael and Mathew Miles "Getting Reform Right: What Works and What Doesn't" in Phi Delta Kappan, June 1992 pp. 745 - 752
14. Gilligan, James Violence New York: Grosset, 1996)
15. Hischi, Travis Causes of Delinquency (Berkeley, CA: University of California Press) 1969
16. Lewin, Tamar "Study Finds 3-Strikes Measure In California Much overrated" in the New York Times, p. 16 August 23, 2001.
17. Lowen, James Lies My Teacher Told Me by James Lowen (New York: New Press) 1995
18. Luker, Kristin Dubious Conceptions (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1996)
19. Nathan, Harriet and Stanley Scott (editors) Experiment and Change in Berkeley (Berkeley: Institute of Governmental Studies, 1978)
20. Noguera, Pedro "Reducing and Preventing Violence: An Analysis of Causes and an Assessment of Successful Programs" in 1995 Wellness Lectures (Oakland, CA: California Wellness Foundation).
21. Noguera, Pedro and Miranda Bliss "An Evaluation and Analysis of Youth Together" (Oakland, CA: ARC, 2001)
22. Russell, Katheryn The Color of Crime (New York; New York University press, 1998)
23. Sarason, Seymour The Culture of the School and the Problem of Change (Boston: Allyn and Bacon) 1971
24. Shanker, Thom "Global Arms Sales Rise Again, and the U.S. leads the pack" in the New York Times August 20, 2001p. 11
25. Stienberg, Lawrence Beyond the Classroom
26. Tyack, David The One Best System (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1974)
27. Waquant, Loic "Deadly Symbiosis: When Ghetto and prison Meet and mesh" in Punishment and Society, 2-3 (Fall 2000).
28. Wilson, James Q. Thinking About Crime (New York: Vintage Books, 1975)
29. Zinn, Howard A People's History of the United States ( New York: Harper Collins) 1980
Published in In Motion Magazine September 30, 2001
If you have any thoughts on this or would like to contribute to an ongoing discussion in the
What is New? || Affirmative Action || Art Changes || Autonomy: Chiapas - California ||
Community Images || Education Rights || E-mail, Opinions and Discussion ||
En español || Essays from Ireland || Global Eyes || Healthcare ||
Human Rights/Civil Rights || Piri Thomas ||
Photo of the Week || QA: Interviews || Region || Rural America ||
Search || Donate || To be notified of new articles || Survey ||
In Motion Magazine's Store || In Motion Magazine Staff ||
In Unity Book of Photos ||
Links Around The World || OneWorld / US ||
Copyright © 1995-2012 NPC Productions as a compilation. All Rights Reserved.