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Responding to The Crisis Confronting Black Youth:
Providing Support Without Furthering Marginalization

Footnotes & References

Pedro A. Noguera, Ph.D.


1. The entire winter edition of the Journal of Negro Education in 1992 and the Fall edition in 1994 (Vol.63, No. 4) was devoted to a focus on the education of Black Males (Vol. 61, No.1)

2. I have changed the name of the school as well as the name of all individuals connected to it in order to protect their privacy. Many of the individuals cited in the case are currently employed at the school or in the neighboring community.

3. In order to protect their privacy, I will not mention the actual name of the school or the individuals involved. For a more detailed discussion of the case mentioned see "Confronting the Urban in Urban School Reform" by P. Noguera in Urban Review (Vo.. 28, No.1, March 1996)

4. The wording cited here in quotes is taken from a district memorandum, January 16, 1992.

5. Field notes, October 7, 1988

6. According to the official CBEDS (California Basic Educational Data System) data maintained by the school district, in 1988 98% of the students at East Sides HS qualified for compensatory education because they scored below the 37th percentile on the California Test of Basic Skills (CTBS). Fewer than 30% of the students enrolled at the school from 1982-1988 graduated.

36% of the students interviewed cited fighting or some other disciplinary problem as the reason for their placement at the school, 38% cited poor attendance, 12% were assigned there because they had children and were on a reduced schedule, 8% stated that their attendance at the school was one of the conditions of their probation from the juvenile court, and the remaining 6% cited a variety of other reasons.

8. Interview, November 22, 1989

9. Interview, April 3, 1990

10. Interview, December 10, 1989

11. Interview, February 12, 1991

12. Interview, February 16, 1991

13. Again, I have not cited the name of the school or of the individuals involved in order to protect the individuals involved. The information regarding funding on the intervention and its effects on the school was provided to me by the Superintendent in an interview on September 15, 1995.


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