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Chapter 4

... and the echo follows
an essay with photos by nic paget-clarke

The following endnotes are from the book ... and the echo follows: an essay with photos by nic paget-clarke. They are placed online here so that if you are reading the book (and you are near a computer) you can click on the links mentioned in the Endnotes and Resource section of the book and study the reference material. Visit the Facebook site for the book here
Chapter 1 | Chapter 2 | Chapter 3 | Chapter 4 | Chapter 5

180.

Very sadly, Tony L. Antonysamy passed away in 2009.

181. CEDA Trust -- http://cedatrust.in/index.html

182. Global Warming: An Analysis of Problems and Facts by L. Antonysamy, Dindigul, Tamil Nadu, India. Published in In Motion Magazine March 22, 2008. http://www.inmotionmagazine.com/global/tnec2.html
Also -- http://cedatrust.in/issues/index.html

183. Indigenous Environmental Network -- http://www.ienearth.org

184. Interview with Tom Goldtooth of the Indigenous Environmental Network: "First and foremost is our right to exist and to make our own decisions ... .” Interview conducted by Nic Paget-Clarke September 1, 2002, in Johannesburg, South Africa. Published in In Motion Magazine March 15, 2003. http://www.inmotionmagazine.com/global/tg1.html

185.

Creating Schools Where Race Does Not Matter: The Role and Significance of Race in the Racial Achievement Gap by Pedro Noguera, New York, New York. Published in In Motion Magazine September 2, 2008. http://www.inmotionmagazine.com/er/pn_creating08.html

186. Noguera, Creating Schools Where Race Does Not Matter: The Role and Significance of Race in the Racial Achievement Gap.

187. Krebs, page 74. See endnote 72 about Sally Hacker.

188. Interview with Henri Tiphagne of People’s Watch - Tamil Nadu: Human Rights Organizations: Protective and Promotive Monitoring the State -- Educating in the Schools. Interview conducted by Nic Paget-Clarke September 2, 2003 in Madurai, Tamil Nadu, India. Published in In Motion Magazine April 4, 2004. http://www.inmotionmagazine.com/global/htiphagne_int.html

189. 1968 and Doors to New Worlds by John Holloway, Turbulence, 2008: no. 2, pp. 9-14. http://turbulence.org.uk/

190. Interview with Vandana Shiva: Discussing “Water Wars”: Resurrection of Commons, Community Rights, and Direct and Basic Democracy. Interview conducted by Nic Paget-Clarke, September 1, 2002 in Johannesburg, South Africa. Published in In Motion Magazine March 6, 2003. http://www.inmotionmagazine.com/global/vshiva3.html

191. An earlier form of liberalization, of free trade within the context of empire, began in the 1830s and 1840s as a strategy of the British empire. In that period, the British parliament passed three liberalization measures which ended the monopoly previously granted to the East India Company and unilaterally declared free trade. However, because of Britain’s dominant position, not only in India but in the world, all that “free trade” flowed through London markets and banks. Similarly, in today’s world, the U.S. reaps the advantages of its dominant position.

The three British laws were: The Poor Law Amendment Act of 1834, Peel’s Bank Act of 1844, and the Corn Law Bill of 1846. See Giovanni Arrighi’s
The Long Twentieth Century, page 265. Published in 1994, 2010 by Verso, London and New York.

192. Paget-Clarke, Interview with Wahleah Johns and Lilian Hill.

193. Paget-Clarke, Interview with Peter Rosset.

194. Food First – http://www.foodfirst.org/

195. Krebs, page 243. Quoting from: The Family Farm: Caught In the Contradictions of American Values, by Frances Moore Lappé, published in Agriculture and Human Values, Spring, 1985, pg. 41. To learn more of Frances Moore Lappé’s writing and work visit the website of the Small Planet Institute at – http://www.smallplanet.org/

196. Paget-Clarke, Interview with Wahleah Johns and Lilian Hill.

197. Paget-Clarke, Interview with Gustavo Esteva: The Society of the Different – Part 1

198. CIA coups:
Iran –
The New York Times Special Report: The CIA in Iran, April 16, 2000 http://www.nytimes.com/library/world/mideast/041600iran-cia-index.html;

Guatemala –
CIA site / Freedom of Information Act section http://www.foia.cia.gov/guatemala.asp, also Guatemala Coup, Global Security.org http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/world/war/guatemalacoup.htm;

the Congo –
Private Military Companies: Options for Regulation, Ordered by the House of Commons (UK Parliament), page 28 of PDF, http://www.fco.gov.uk/resources/en/pdf/pdf4/fco_pdf_privatemilitarycompanies;

Vietnam –
Tapes Show JFK Conflicted Over Saigon Coup, by Barry Schweid, AP Diplomatic Writer, November 3, 2009 http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/33606457;

Indonesia –
Our Bloody Coup in Indonesia, Isabel Hilton, guardian.co.uk, August 1, 2001, http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2001/aug/01/indonesia.comment

199. According to The New York Times, in 2009 there were 49 million people in the U.S. with inadequate nutrition, 13 million more than in 2007 and the most since the federal government began keeping records in 1995. Hunger in the United States. The New York Times Editorial, originally published November 17, 2009. http://www.nytimes.com/2009/11/18/opinion/18wed2.html

200. Paget-Clarke, Interview with Devinder Sharma, Part 1.

201. Open Veins of Latin America: Five Centuries of the Pillage of a Continent by Eduardo Galeano, pages 28, 78-9. Published in 1973, 1997 by Monthly Review Press, New York. http://www.monthlyreview.org/

202. A Short History of West Africa: A.D. 1000 to the Present by T.A. Osae, S.N. Nwabara and A.T.O. Odunsi, pages 168-9. Published in 1968, 1973 by Hill & Wang, New York.

203. World Poverty ‘More Widespread’ by Steve Schifferes, BBC News. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/business/7583719.stm

204. The New York Times reports that according to the FAO the world’s hungry have increased to 1.02 billion (one in seven people). Experts Worry as Population and Hunger Grow by Neil MacFarQuhar, October 21, 2009, The New York Times, http://www.nytimes.com/2009/10/22/world/22food.html

205. Klein, page 156.

206. Interview with Yin Shao Loong of Third World Network: Democracy at the International Level. Interview conducted by Nic Paget-Clarke, September 3, 2002 in Johannesburg, South Africa. Published in In Motion Magazine June 21, 2003. http://www.inmotionmagazine.com/global/ysl1.html

207. Interview with L. A. Samy and Christina Samy of AREDS and SWATE: The poor have to be united / You create alternatives. Interview conducted by Nic Paget-Clarke, September 7, 2003 in Renganathapuram, Tamil Nadu, India. Published in In Motion Magazine November 6, 2004. http://www.inmotionmagazine.com/global/samy_int.html

208. Paget-Clarke, Interview with L. A. Samy and Christina Samy.

209. A U.S. Hog Giant Transforms Eastern Europe by Doreen Carvajal and Stephen Castle, May 5, 2009, The New York Times.

210. Las Ciudades de Cerdos de Smithfield by Luis Hernández Navarro, La Jornada, May 12, 2009. Published in English in In Motion Magazine, translated from Spanish by Nic Paget-Clarke and Janet Doyle, http://www.inmotionmagazine.com/opin/lhn_pigs.html

211. Private conversation with Roger Allison, August 9, 2009.

212. North Carolina's Largest Hog Producers by Environmental Defense Fund. http://www.edf.org/documents/2557_Hogwatch_largesthogproducers.pdf.

213. Boss Hog: The Power of Pork / North Carolina’s Pork Revolution by Pat Stith, Joby Warrick and Melanie Sill. Published in The News & Observer from February 19-23, 1995. Winner of the 1996 Pulitzer Prize (Public Service). Photos by Robert Willett. http://www.pulitzer.org/citation/1996-Public-Service

214. Navarro, Las Ciudades de Cerdos de Smithfield

215. Doreen Carvajal and Stephen Castle, The New York Times.


216. Navarro, Las Ciudades de Cerdos de Smithfield.

217. Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 - Update 104, World Health Organization.
http://www.who.int/csr/don/2010_06_11/en/index.html
.

218. Since these photographs were taken, both the USS Constellation and the F-117 have been retired from service. http://www.navsource.org/archives/02/64.htm ; http://www.strategypage.com/htmw/htairfo/articles/20080313.aspx

219. The Soils of War: The Real Agenda Behind Agricultural Reconstruction in Afghanistan and Iraq by GRAIN, March 2009. http://www.grain.org/briefings/?id=217 , also http://www.inmotionmagazine.com/global/grain_soil09.html

220. Japan Policy Research Institute -- http://www.jpri.org/

221. Interview with Chalmers Johnson: Part 1 - An Empire of More Than 725 Military Bases. Interview conducted by Nic Paget-Clarke, May 29, 2004, in Cardiff, California. Published in In Motion Magazine September 19, 2004. http://www.inmotionmagazine.com/global/cj_int/cj_int1.html

222. Klein, page 378.

223. USNS Sisler -- http://www.msc.navy.mil/inventory/ships.asp?ship=157

224. Paget-Clarke, Interview with Chalmers Johnson: Part 1.

225. Also see Klein, page 379.

226. Paget-Clarke, Interview with Chalmers Johnson: Part 1.

227. Paget-Clarke, Interview with Chalmers Johnson: Part 1.
228. The JOE 2008 / Joint Operating Environment: Challenges and Implications for the Future Joint Force by the United States Joint Forces Command (JFC), page 42-3. http://www.jfcom.mil/newslink/storyarchive/2008/JOE2008.pdf

229. Counterinsurgency -- U.S. Army Field Manual / Marine Corps Warfighting Publication, December 15, 2006. http://www.fas.org/irp/doddir/army/fm3-24.pdf

230. Global Issues -- http://www.globalissues.org/article/75/world-military-spending See the World Military Spending section and go to In Context: US Military Spending Versus Rest Of The World. Click on Comparing US with others tab. Accessed July 3, 2010.

231. Nemesis: The Last Days of the American Republic by Chalmers Johnson, page 271. Published 2006 by Metropolitan Books, New York.

232. Farming Systems and Poverty: Making a Difference, 18th Symposium of the International Farming Systems Association (IFSA) with FAO and IFAD. Rome, Italy. October 31 -- November 4, 2005.

233. The Salesianum Centre is run by the Salesians of Don Bosco, "A Roman Catholic religious order founded in the late 19th century by Saint John Bosco ... to care for the young and poor children of the industrial revolution." http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Salesians_of_Don_Bosco ; http://www.salesians.org/bosco.html

234. La Cooperativa Agricoltura Nuova -- http://www.agricolturanuova.it/

235. I would later see references to these colony types as "settler/ exploitative" and "settler/peasant-export." See: Land, Labour and Gendered Livelihoods in a "Peasant" and a "Settler” Economy by Dede-Esi Amanor-Wilks, Feminist Africa Issue 12.2009 -- http://www.feministafrica.org/uploads/File/Issue_12/fa12_feature_amanor-wilks.pdf ; The Developmental and Democratic Challenges of Postcolonial Kenya by PTZeleza in African Affairs, as published in The Zeleza Post, September 23rd, 2008 -- http://www.zeleza.com/blogging/african-affairs/developmental-and-democratic-challenges-postcolonial-kenya

236. Galeano, page 23.

237. Galeano, page 24.

238. Galeano, page 56.

239. Galeano, page 28 -- Ernest Mandel, Marxist Economic Theory, 2 vols. (New York: Monthly Review Press, 1969), 2:443-44.

240. The Long Twentieth Century by Giovanni Arrighi, page 210. Published in 1994, 2010 by Verso, London and New York. Arrighi puts in context the Treaty of Methuen (1703) and the Treaty of Utrecht (1713) which gave England access to Brazil’s gold and the Spanish empire’s slave trade.

241. Galeano, page 78.

242. Arrighi, The Long Twentieth Century, page 204. Here, Arrighi also describes the three sides of the horrific triangle. He explains its importance to the industrial revolution and the development of the British systemic cycle of capitalism.

243. Capital: A Critical Analysis of Capitalist Production, Volume 1 by Karl Marx, chapter 27, pages 717-733. Originally published in 1887, this edition was published by the Foreign Languages Publishing House, Moscow, USSR (year not cited).

244. Karl Marx: A Brief Biographical Sketch with an Exposition of Marxism by V.I. (Vladimir Ilyich) Lenin, pages 24-36. This edition published 1976 by Foreign Language Press, Peking, People’s Republic of China. Also explained in: Anti-Duhring: Herr Eugen Duhring’s Revolution in Science by Frederick Engels, page 226. This printing 1972 by International Publishers, New York.

245. Imperialism, The Highest Stage of Capitalism by V. I. Lenin. This edition published 1973 by Foreign Language Press, Peking, People’s Republic of China.

246. Lenin, Imperialism, pages 104-105.

247. The Sorrows of Empire: Militarism, Secrecy and the End of the Republic by Chalmers Johnson, pages 39-43. Published 2004 by Metropolitan Books, New York.

248. ‘Folly of Empire’ Offers Critique of U.S. Imperialism by Robert Siegel (quoting John B. Judis’ book). National Public Radio, June 2, 2009.

249. Arrighi, The Long Twentieth Century, pages 301-304. Arrighi describes the development of this process in the U.S., beginning with the Great Depression of 1873-96. According to Arrighi, this verticalization or "internalization of transaction costs" is a key characteristic of the U.S. systemic cycle of capitalism.

250. Mark Twain: A Life by Ron Powers, pages 599-603. Published in 2005 by Free Press, New York.

251. War Is a Racket by Smedley D. Butler, Major General, United States Marines (Retired). Published in 1935 by Round Table Press, New York. http://www.rationalrevolution.net/special/library/war_is_a_racket.htm , http://www.rationalrevolution.net/war/major_general_smedley_butler_usm.htm

252. The 20th century Great Depression lasted from 1929 to the early 1940s. As mentioned in endnote 249, the Great Depression of the 19th century lasted from 1873-96.

253. Lessons from the Great Depression for Economic Recovery in 2009 by Christina D. Romer, Council of Economic Advisers, to be presented at the Brookings Institution, Washington, D.C., March 9, 2009. http://www.brookings.edu/~/media/Files/events/2009/0309_lessons/0309_lessons_romer.pdf

254. Roosevelt Letter to Frankfurter, 2/9/37. New Deal Network / Roosevelt Institute http://newdeal.feri.org/court/fdr01.htm Accessed and printed out June 14, 2009 (url no longer active).

255. The American Economic Empire: Interview with Robert Hunter Wade. Challenge, vol. 47, no. 1, January/February 2004, page 69. Copyright © 2004 by M. E. Sharpe, Inc. http://www.challengemagazine.com/Challenge%20interview%20pdfs/Wade.pdf

256. Interview with Robert Hunter Wade, page 66.

257. Interview with Robert Hunter Wade, page 67.

258. Hear Our Voice sculpture was described by Friends of the Earth Vice-Chair Tony Juniper in a September 1, 2002 statement. http://www.foeeurope.org/activities/WSSD/giant_action.htm

259. Interview with Robert Hunter Wade, page 66.

260. Interview with Robert Hunter Wade, page 67.

261. History of Mergers and Acquisitions, in EconomyWatch -- http://www.economywatch.com/mergers-acquisitions/history.html

262. Klein, page 163.

263. Interview with Robert Hunter Wade, page 69-70.

264. F.I.A.S.C.O.: Blood in the Water on Wall Street by Frank Partnoy, page 43. Originally published in 1997, this edition in 2009, by W. W. Norton & Company, New York, London.

265. Partnoy, page 49.

266. Partnoy, page 29.

267. Partnoy, page 55.

268. Partnoy, page 253.

269. Partnoy, page 259.

270. International Swaps and Derivatives Association -- http://www.isda.org/ Also see: Board of Directors under the About tab. Includes officers of Citi, Morgan Stanley, Goldman Sachs, Standard Chartered Bank, BP OIL International, Mitsubishi UFJ Securities Co., Ltd., Bank of America Merrill Lynch, Barclays Capital, etc.

271. Definition: Notional principal -- Notional principal, or notional amount, of a derivative contract is a hypothetical underlying quantity upon which interest rate or other payment obligations are computed. http://www.isda.org/educat/faqsindex.html

272. ISDA 2009 -- A Yearbook of ISDA Activities (International Swaps and Derivatives Association), page 47. http://www.isda.org/wwa/Retrospective_2008-2009_Master.pdf

273. Partnoy, page 264. Also, Bad Money by Kevin Phillips, page xxv, published in 2009 by Penguin Books, New York.

274. World Development Indicators Database, World Bank, 7 October 2009, Gross national income 2008, Atlas method. http://siteresources.worldbank.org/DATASTATISTICS/Resources/GNI.pdf

275. Wall St. Helped to Mask Debt Fueling Europe’s Crisis by Louise Story, Landon Thomas Jr., and Nelson D. Schwartz, February 14, 2010, The New York Times, http://www.nytimes.com/2010/02/14/business/global/14debt.html

276. Another very sad passing was the death in 2009 of Roberto Martinez. Roberto was a dedicated Chicano civil rights and human rights activist for over 25 years. In 1992, he became the first U.S. citizen to be honored as an International Human Rights Monitor by the international human rights organization Human Rights Watch.

277. Interview with Roberto Martinez (1997): Immigration and Human Rights on the U.S.-Mexico Border. Interview conducted by Nic Paget-Clarke, in San Diego, California. Published in In Motion Magazine September 14, 1997. http://www.inmotionmagazine.com/border.html
278. History of Juneteenth, http://www.juneteenth.com/history.htm

279. Interview with Maria Jiménez (1998): The Militarization of the U.S.- Mexico Border / Border Communities Respond to Militarization / From Slave Patrol to Border Patrol. Interview conducted by Nic Paget-Clarke in Houston, Texas. Published in In Motion Magazine June 21, 2003. http://www.inmotionmagazine.com/mj1.html

280. U.S./Mexico Border Program, an immigration law enforcement monitoring project of the American Friends Service Committee. http://www.afsc.org/sandiego/

281. Interview with Roberto Martinez (2001): Border Operations / Migrant Life / Organizing for Human Rights. Interview conducted by Nic Paget-Clarke July 7, 2001, in San Diego, California. Published in In Motion Magazine December 4, 2001. http://www.inmotionmagazine.com/hrcr/rm2001a.html

282. Thanks to Operation Gatekeeper, Death Toll Increases to Over 5,000 by Mary Ann West, October 5, 2009, Huffington Post. http://www.huffingtonpost.com/mary-ann-west/thanks-to-operation-gatek_b_309744.html

283. The $1.4 Trillion Question by James Fallows, The Atlantic, January/February 2008. http://www.theatlantic.com/doc/print/200801/fallows-chinese-dollars

284. George Carlin Talks About "Stuff". Watch the video -- http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=MvgN5gCuLac

285. Unequal America: Causes and consequences of the wide -- and growing -- gap between rich and poor by Elizabeth Gudrais, Harvard Magazine, July-August 2008. http://harvardmagazine.com/2008/07/unequal-america

286. Gap in Life Expectancy Widens for the Nation by Robert Pear, The New York Times, March 23, 2008. http://www.nytimes.com/2008/03/23/us/23health.html

287. Bush/Geithner/Obama -- U.S. President George W. Bush, Treasury Secretary Timothy F. Geithner, President Barack Obama. Secretary Geithner’s mentor was former Secretary Robert Rubin, a former CEO of the global investment bank Goldman Sachs. See: Rubinomics Recalculated by Jackie Calmes, The New York Times, November 23, 2008 http://www.nytimes.com/2008/11/24/us/politics/24rubin.html?_r=1 And also: Larry Summers, Tim Geithner and Wall Street’s ownership of government by Glenn Greenwald, April 4, 2009, Salon. http://www.salon.com/opinion/greenwald/2009/04/04/summers/x

288. Revisiting a Fed Waltz With A.I.G. by Gretchen Morgenson, The New York Times, November 21, 2009. http://www.nytimes.com/2009/11/22/business/22gret.html

289. Giovanni Arrighi was Professor of Sociology at Johns Hopkins University. Born in Italy on July 7, 1937, he died June 18, 2009. See: Giovanni Arrighi obituary: Political economist and historian of global capitalism by David Harvey, guardian.co.uk, October 8, 2009. http://www.guardian.co.uk/education/2009/oct/08/giovanni-arrighi-obituary

290. Arrighi, Adam Smith in Beijing, page 231. (See endnote 22.)

291. Arrighi, Adam Smith in Beijing, page 143.

292. Arrighi, Adam Smith in Beijing, page 336.

293. Arrighi, Adam Smith in Beijing, page 336-341. In his comparison of China’s market economy system to Europe’s prior to the military attacks of the West on China (the Opium Wars: 1839-1842, 1856-1860), it was the history of "militarism, industrialism, and capitalism" in Europe which made them different. See more on this in this essay (And The Echo Follows) on pages 131-132.

Published in In Motion Magazine May 8, 2011


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